The Layers of the Brain

Phineas Gage worked on a railroad construction crew in Vermont during the mid-1800s.
While his crew was blowing up rocks using blasting powder to clear the way for a new rail line, a 13-pound iron rod was accidentally shot out from the explosion. It went through his cheek, left eye socket, and out the top of his head.
Remarkably, Gage survived the incident but the left frontal cortex of his brain did not. Along with the …